Questions 1 to 4 are based on the following passage:
Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human population. Many people alive today would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born a hundred years ago. Because more people live longer, there are more people around at any given time. In fact, it is a decrease in death rates, not an increase in birth rates, that has led to the population explosion.
Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load. In all societies, peoplewho are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and gathering cultures, old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die. In times of famine, infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved, whereas if the parents survived they could have another child. In most contemporary (当代的) societies, people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work; we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age. Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement, somebody else must support them. In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty.Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people; unless they have wealth or private or government insurance, they must often go on welfare if they have a serious illness.
When older people become senile or too weak to care for themselves, they create grave problems for their families. In the past and in some traditional cultures, they would be cared for at home until they died. Today, with most members of a household working or in school, there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person. To meet this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent (康复的) hospitals have been built. These are often profit-making organizations, although some are sponsored (赞助) by religious and other nonprofit groups. While a few of these institutions are good, most of them are simply dumping grounds for the dying in which care is given by poorly paid, overworked, and under-skilled personnel.
1.What was the cause to the population growth according to the passage?
A. increase of birth rate
B. advance in medical care
C. well-administered social welfare
D. the decrease of death rate
2. It can be learned from the passage that in some traditional societies _____.
A. infants may be left to die when there isn't enough food to go around
B. old and sick people are cared for at home until they died
C. people are required to retire at a certain age
D. people who are too weak or ill have to take care of themselves
3. What does the word “senile” in the first line of the last paragraph mean?
A. advanced in age
4. What is the author's attitude toward the nursing homes and convalescent hospitals mentioned in the paragraph?
5. The government official can hardly find sufficient grounds _____his arguments in favor of the revision of the tax law.
A. on which to base
B. which to be based on
C. to base on which
D. on which to be based
6. Hydrogen is one of the most important element in the universe _____it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced.
A. so that
B. but that
C. provided that
D. in that
7. Just as relaxation is an important part of our lives, _____ stress.
A. so is
B. as it is
C. and so is
D. the same is
8. While a young man, he decided to put aside a little money every month to make for his old age.
9. The sales department has submitted a _____of their annual sales report to the board of directors.
4. D、从文章的最后一段可以看出，作者对于那些疗养院是持批评的态度，用的大多是贬义词。如dumping grounds， poorly paid, overworked, 和underskilled。
5. A、to base something on something：把……建立在……的基础上。这里which 指代的是grounds。
6. D、in that在这里相当于一个连词because。再比如：
This tribe has a very strange custom in that they always leave the corpse of their deceased relatives exposed until the vultures eat the flesh up. 这个部族有个非常奇怪的风俗，因为他们总是把死去的亲人的尸体暴露直到秃鹰吃光它们的肉。
7. A、as. so.正如同…… ……也是…… 常用来连接两个并列的名词。比如：
Just as Hong Kong is one of the biggest financial centers in the world, so is New York.
8. A、 provision：预备，防备。
to make provisions for the future：为将来作好准备。
9. B、 sketch：草稿。schedule：时间表。shorthand：速记。scheme：策划。